How to know whether to rebuild or reorganize indexes plus a simple T-SQL only index rebuild script

Simple query to show logical defragmentation

You may find after a rebuild/reorg that some of the fragmentation values are the same or dont change much. However take a look at the page count.
If it is very low the table is so tiny that it really doesn’t matter.

SELECT dbschemas.[name] as 'Schema', 
dbtables.[name] as 'Table', 
dbindexes.[name] as 'Index',
indexstats.avg_fragmentation_in_percent,
indexstats.page_count
FROM sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats (DB_ID(), NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL) AS indexstats
INNER JOIN sys.tables dbtables on dbtables.[object_id] = indexstats.[object_id]
INNER JOIN sys.schemas dbschemas on dbtables.[schema_id] = dbschemas.[schema_id]
INNER JOIN sys.indexes AS dbindexes ON dbindexes.[object_id] = indexstats.[object_id]
AND indexstats.index_id = dbindexes.index_id
WHERE indexstats.database_id = DB_ID()
ORDER BY indexstats.avg_fragmentation_in_percent desc

The best way I would recommend to maintain your indexes is rather than use the built in maintenance plane, use a custom
script that either rebuilds or reorganizes based on the percentage of the fragmentation.

If you can implement stored procedures you might want to look at Ola Hallengren’s index scripts.

If you just want a basic t-sql script that checks the percentage and either defrags or rebuilds dependant
on the fragmentation level and doesn’t create any permanent objects in the db you can use this one sourced from
Microsoft.

Note how it only defrags indexes over the percentage that you set. Additonally if the amount is over 30% it will
rebuild, under it will reorg.

-- Ensure a USE <databasename> statement has been executed first.
SET NOCOUNT ON;
DECLARE @objectid int;
DECLARE @indexid int;
DECLARE @partitioncount bigint;
DECLARE @schemaname nvarchar(130); 
DECLARE @objectname nvarchar(130); 
DECLARE @indexname nvarchar(130); 
DECLARE @partitionnum bigint;
DECLARE @partitions bigint;
DECLARE @frag float;
DECLARE @command nvarchar(4000); 
-- Conditionally select tables and indexes from the sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats function 
-- and convert object and index IDs to names.
SELECT
    object_id AS objectid,
    index_id AS indexid,
    partition_number AS partitionnum,
    avg_fragmentation_in_percent AS frag
INTO #work_to_do
FROM sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats (DB_ID(), NULL, NULL , NULL, 'LIMITED')
WHERE avg_fragmentation_in_percent > 10.0 AND index_id > 0;

-- Declare the cursor for the list of partitions to be processed.
DECLARE partitions CURSOR FOR SELECT * FROM #work_to_do;

-- Open the cursor.
OPEN partitions;

-- Loop through the partitions.
WHILE (1=1)
    BEGIN;
        FETCH NEXT
           FROM partitions
           INTO @objectid, @indexid, @partitionnum, @frag;
        IF @@FETCH_STATUS < 0 BREAK;
        SELECT @objectname = QUOTENAME(o.name), @schemaname = QUOTENAME(s.name)
        FROM sys.objects AS o
        JOIN sys.schemas as s ON s.schema_id = o.schema_id
        WHERE o.object_id = @objectid;
        SELECT @indexname = QUOTENAME(name)
        FROM sys.indexes
        WHERE  object_id = @objectid AND index_id = @indexid;
        SELECT @partitioncount = count (*)
        FROM sys.partitions
        WHERE object_id = @objectid AND index_id = @indexid;

-- 30 is an arbitrary decision point at which to switch between reorganizing and rebuilding.
        IF @frag < 30.0
            SET @command = N'ALTER INDEX ' + @indexname + N' ON ' + @schemaname + N'.' + @objectname + N' REORGANIZE';
        IF @frag >= 30.0
            SET @command = N'ALTER INDEX ' + @indexname + N' ON ' + @schemaname + N'.' + @objectname + N' REBUILD';
        IF @partitioncount > 1
            SET @command = @command + N' PARTITION=' + CAST(@partitionnum AS nvarchar(10));
        EXEC (@command);
        PRINT N'Executed: ' + @command;
    END;

-- Close and deallocate the cursor.
CLOSE partitions;
DEALLOCATE partitions;

-- Drop the temporary table.
DROP TABLE #work_to_do;
GO
Rob StGeorge
Senior SQL Server Database Administrator residing in Auckland, NZ

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